What is Linguistics? | Definition and Branches of Linguistics: Linguistics is the scientific study of language, specifically language form, language meaning, and language in context. Linguistics is that particular science which studies the origin, organization, nature and development of language descriptively, historically, comparatively, explicitly and formulates the general rules related to language. Now, let’s discuss some of the branches of linguistics. General linguistics is a study of the phenomena, historical changes, and functions of language without restriction to a particular language or to a particular aspect of language such as phonetics, grammar and stylistics. Descriptive linguistics is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is actually used (or how it was used in the past) by a group of people in a speech community. It deals with a particular language in a specific time and in a specific community. Diachronic linguistics is also called historical linguistics. It is the scientific study of language change over time. It studies language change, history of words, history of speech communities and develops general theories about how and why language changes. Comparative linguistics is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness. It compares two languages and establishes relationships between them. This comparison is generally done between the languages which are related to each other. Theoretical linguistics studies language to construct theories of their structure and functions. It is not concerned with practical applications. Applied linguistics studies language to apply the concepts and findings of linguistics to practical tasks including English language teaching. It covers both general and descriptive linguistics. Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or sign, their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL STATUS. Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract and grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs. It has traditionally focused largely on the study of the systems of phonemes in particular languages (and therefore used to be also called PHONEMICS or PHONEMATICS. MORPHOLOGY is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language. It analyzes the structure of words and parts of words, such as stems, root words, prefixes, and suffixes. ........................................................................... Sources: www.wikipedia.com Webster Dictionary Evgeny Teilor, https://www.jamendo.com/track/1176656/oceans Image Sources: www.pixabay.com www.openclipart.com ...................................................................................................... Tags: what is linguistics linguistics definition branches of linguistics define linguistics
Views: 126577 English Literature Hub
Subject:English Paper: Literary Criticism and Theory
Views: 16019 Vidya-mitra
The "Linguistic Engineering" classis part of our international MA degree program "Linguistics and Wen Technology". It is a true online class without any in-class meetings. This short clip lists the content, the requirements and the main principles of E-Education associated with this class.
Views: 1161 The Virtual Linguistics Campus
This video is an introduction to Structuralism, specifically focusing on the birth of Semiotics as a result of the work of Ferdinand de Saussure Edit: In response to comments asking about the relationship between Syntagm and Paradigm: Syntagms (as mentioned in the video) are language "signs" as defined in the video, and a syntagmatic relationship is the process of ordering those signs to make a clear meaning (the example of "the dog barks at the bird" is an example of this). A paradigm refers to other signs that could substitute for one of the syntagms in such a relationship. So, we could substitute the word "car", "cat", or "mailman" for "bird" in that sentence and it would still make sense, but we probably couldn't use the word "cloud" (unless you have a very odd dog) because most dogs don't bark at clouds. Any sign that can substitute for another is considered to be in a paradigmatic relationship with that other sign. A paradigm is the set of signs that are associated with some other sign that all belong to some category that they all share (in this case, things that dogs will bark at). I hope that maybe clears up some confusion- sorry for not putting this in the original video!
Views: 74838 Thatoneguyinlitclass
✪✪✪✪✪ WORK FROM HOME! Looking for WORKERS for simple Internet data entry JOBS. $15-20 per hour. SIGN UP here - http://jobs.theaudiopedia.com ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS? What does STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS mean? STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS meaning - STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS definition - STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Structural linguistics is an approach to linguistics originating from the work of Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure and is part of the overall approach of structuralism. De Saussure's Course in General Linguistics, published posthumously in 1916, stressed examining language as a static system of interconnected units. He is thus known as a father of modern linguistics for bringing about the shift from diachronic (historical) to synchronic (non-historical) analysis, as well as for introducing several basic dimensions of semiotic analysis that are still important today, such as syntagmatic and paradigmatic analysis (or 'associations' as Saussure was still calling them). Structural linguistics involves collecting a corpus of utterances and then attempting to classify all of the elements of the corpus at their different linguistic levels: the phonemes, morphemes, lexical categories, noun phrases, verb phrases, and sentence types. Two of Saussure's key methods were syntagmatic and paradigmatic analysis, which define units syntactically and lexically, respectively, according to their contrast with the other units in the system. The foundation of structural linguistics is a sign, which in turn has two components: a "signified" is an idea or concept, while the "signifier" is a means of expressing the signified. The "sign" is thus the combined association of signifier and signified. Signs can be defined only by being placed in contrast with other signs, which forms the basis of what later became the paradigmatic dimension of semiotic organization (i.e., collections of terms/entities that stand in opposition). This idea contrasted drastically with the idea that signs can be examined in isolation from a language and stressed Saussure's point that linguistics must treat language synchronically. Paradigmatic relations hold among sets of units that (in the early Saussurian renditions) exist in the mind, such as the set distinguished phonologically by variation in their initial sound cat, bat, hat, mat, fat, or the morphologically distinguished set ran, run, running. The units of a set must have something in common with one another, but they must contrast too, otherwise they could not be distinguished from each other and would collapse into a single unit, which could not constitute a set on its own, since a set always consists of more than one unit. Syntagmatic relations, in contrast, are concerned with how units, once selected from their paradigmatic sets of oppositions, are 'chained' together into structural wholes. One further common confusion here is that syntagmatic relations, assumed to occur in time, are anchored in speech and are considered either diachronic (confusing syntagmatic with historical) or are part of parole ("everyday speech": confusing syntagmatic with performance and behaviour and divorcing it from the linguistic system), or both.
Views: 7804 The Audiopedia
Principles of Linguistic Analysis 3/3 - بروفيسور أحمد بابكر الطاهر
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General linguistics. Languages used by human to the meaning of other words in a language, how sentence is empirical science general linguistics aims at tracing and defining universal arrive an adequate definition category its widest sense linguisticsthe nature language(1)definition language system arbitrary vocal symbols means which gradually developed this way for we can take given hatzfeld, darmstetter thomas's dictionary subject matter scope; Its relations with sciences 6 iiidefinition 7 2. What is general linguistics? Sciencedirectsaussure's lectures on linguistics marxists internet archive. General linguistics definition of general in english course wikipedia. The branch of linguistics concerned with the study general course in is a book compiled by charles bally and albert sechehaye from to explain how social crystallization language comes about, saussure proposes notion 'individual speaking' ('parole' french) sep 1, 2015 other words, discipline that seeks formulate principles pragmatics (how context influences meaning) definition science or. Define general linguistics at dictionary. Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples at work in all languages, to deduce the general laws which specific historical phenomena can be reduced; And c) delimit define itself. A url? Q merriam webster dictionary generala study of the phenomena, historical changes, and functions language without restriction to a particular or aspect (as phonetics, grammar, stylistics) characteristics in general rather than language; Theoretical, applied, linguistics meaning, pronunciation, example sentences, more from oxford dictionaries. Ferdinand de saussure's course in general linguistics angelfirethe many subfields of modern thoughtco. The branch of linguistics devoted to the it is difficult explain why barthes's translators are named, whereas general definition a broad study, without specialization in particular field. Linguistics jun 21, 2010 ul li look at the diagram, phonetics phonology sounds of language linguistics grammar morphology syntax meaning semantics general studies natural languages (i. Place of language in the home disciplines general and descriptive linguistics concerns itself with fundamental questions what is how it related to ferdinand de saussure's course (1916) a summary semantics (the study meaning), pragmatics purposes introduction one semester, types meaning grammatical vsword vs. What is general linguistics? Uzhgeneral linguistics definedarticle about by the free definition and meaning course in ferdinand de georgetown universityabout university of helsinki. Full text of 'course in general linguistics' internet archiveuniversity pittsburgh. An example of general linguistics is studying how people learn second languages find out information about. Sentence meaning dec 21, 2016 linguistics is the systematic study of nature, structure, and definition '[linguistics] has a twofold aim to uncover general principles Definition by merriam. Definition of general linguistics by merriam.
Views: 234 Another Question II
How should we handle assimilation effects in the transcription of PDE? What is the difference between sense and reference? Are Indonesian 'buku' and French 'beaucoup' related? Why was Manx not mentioned as a Celtic language? And what about Netlinguistics? These and other "questions of the month" that were asked in connection with the videos in this channel are taken up by Prof. Handke in this monthly series of educational videos in linguistics.
Views: 843 The Virtual Linguistics Campus
Principle of teaching English (For Hindi medium students) Reet
Views: 11661 Englishadda24
This clip explains and exemplifies the principles of morphological analysis using concatenative PDE plural forms an example. After an isolation of the morphs, the method of "preliminary normalization" which goes back to Charles Hockett will be discussed.
Views: 15537 The Virtual Linguistics Campus
Introduction to Theory of Literature (ENGL 300) In this lecture, Professor Paul Fry explores the semiotics movement through the work of its founding theorist, Ferdinand de Saussure. The relationship of semiotics to hermeneutics, New Criticism, and Russian formalism is considered. Key semiotic binaries--such as langue and parole, signifier and signified, and synchrony and diachrony--are explored. Considerable time is spent applying semiotics theory to the example of a "red light" in a variety of semiotic contexts. 00:00 - Chapter 1. What is Semiology? 08:34 - Chapter 2. "Langue" and "Parole," "Signified" and "Signifier" 27:08 - Chapter 3. Positive and Negative Knowledge: Arbitrary and Differential 33:11 - Chapter 4. Example: the Red Stoplight 45:55 - Chapter 5. Synchrony and Diachrony Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://open.yale.edu/courses This course was recorded in Spring 2009.
Views: 236094 YaleCourses
✪✪✪✪✪ WORK FROM HOME! Looking for WORKERS for simple Internet data entry JOBS. $15-20 per hour. SIGN UP here - http://jobs.theaudiopedia.com ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR? What does UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR mean? UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR meaning - UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR definition - UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Universal grammar (UG) is a theory in linguistics, usually credited to Noam Chomsky, proposing that the ability to learn grammar is hard-wired into the brain. It is sometimes known as "mental grammar", and stands opposed to other "grammars", e.g. prescriptive, descriptive and pedagogical. The theory suggests that linguistic ability becomes manifest without being taught (see the poverty of the stimulus argument), and that there are properties that all natural human languages share. It is a matter of observation and experimentation to determine precisely what abilities are innate and what properties are shared by all languages. The theory of universal grammar proposes that if human beings are brought up under normal conditions (not those of extreme sensory deprivation), then they will always develop language with certain properties (e.g., distinguishing nouns from verbs, or distinguishing function words from lexical words). The theory proposes that there is an innate, genetically determined language faculty that knows these rules, making it easier and faster for children to learn to speak than it otherwise would be. This faculty does not know the vocabulary of any particular language (so words and their meanings must be learned), and there remain several parameters which can vary freely among languages (such as whether adjectives come before or after nouns) which must also be learned. As Chomsky puts it, "Evidently, development of language in the individual must involve three factors: (1) genetic endowment, which sets limits on the attainable languages, thereby making language acquisition possible; (2) external data, converted to the experience that selects one or another language within a narrow range; (3) principles not specific to the Faculty of Language." Occasionally, aspects of universal grammar seem describable in terms of general details regarding cognition. For example, if a predisposition to categorize events and objects as different classes of things is part of human cognition, and directly results in nouns and verbs showing up in all languages, then it could be assumed that rather than this aspect of universal grammar being specific to language, it is more generally a part of human cognition. To distinguish properties of languages that can be traced to other facts regarding cognition from properties of languages that cannot, the abbreviation UG* can be used. UG is the term often used by Chomsky for those aspects of the human brain which cause language to be the way that it is (i.e. are universal grammar in the sense used here) but here for discussion, it is used for those aspects which are furthermore specific to language (thus UG, as Chomsky uses it, is just an abbreviation for universal grammar, but UG* as used here is a subset of universal grammar). In the same article, Chomsky casts the theme of a larger research program in terms of the following question: "How little can be attributed to UG while still accounting for the variety of 'I-languages' attained, relying on third factor principles?" (I-languages meaning internal languages, the brain states that correspond to knowing how to speak and understand a particular language, and third factor principles meaning (3) in the previous quote). Chomsky has speculated that UG might be extremely simple and abstract, for example only a mechanism for combining symbols in a particular way, which he calls "merge". The following quote shows that Chomsky does not use the term "UG" in the narrow sense UG* suggested above: "The conclusion that merge falls within UG holds whether such recursive generation is unique to FL (faculty of language) or is appropriated from other systems."
Views: 12063 The Audiopedia
Learn about the nativist, learning, and interactionist theories of human language development. By Carole Yue. Created by Carole Yue. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/processing-the-environment/emotion/v/emotions-limbic-system?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/processing-the-environment/language/v/language-and-cognition?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat MCAT on Khan Academy: Go ahead and practice some passage-based questions! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s MCAT channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDkK5wqSuwDlJ3_nl3rgdiQ?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 208318 khanacademymedicine
Want more videos about psychology every Monday and Thursday? Check out our sister channel SciShow Psych at https://www.youtube.com/scishowpsych! You know what's amazing? That we can talk to people, they can make meaning out of it, and then talk back to us. In this episode of Crash Course Psychology, Hank talks to us and tries to make meaning out of how our brains do this thing called Language. Plus, monkeys! -- Table of Contents Phonemes, Morphemes, Grammar 01:48:13 Receptive and Productive Language 03:22:06 Babbling 03:55:22 How We Acquire Language 05:50:22 -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 1311105 CrashCourse
How much do languages have in common underneath? Are there some rules all languages follow? In this episode, we talk about the Principles and Parameters approach to Universal Grammar, and look at some principles that all languages obey, as well as some parameters that offer a choice between two options for your language. This is Topic #25! This is also our 6 month video! Thanks for all your support so far. This week's tag language: Swedish! Find us on all the social media worlds: Tumblr: thelingspace.tumblr.com Twitter: @TheLingSpace Facebook: www.facebook.com/thelingspace/ And at our website, www.thelingspace.com! Our website also has extra content about this week's topic at www.thelingspace.com/episode-25/ We also have forums to discuss this episode, and linguistics more generally. Looking forward to next week!
Views: 12611 The Ling Space
In this episode of What the Theory, an introduction to semiotics, in particular the approaches of linguists and semioticians Ferdinand de Saussure and Charles Sanders Peirce. Signs, semiotics as well as the concepts of the signifier and signified can seem like somewhat complex terminology when first starting out as can Peirce's related yet distinct notion of the icon, index, symbol triad. In this video essay, I try to help all you out who would like semiotics explained in a clear and concise manner so that you can go away with a slightly clearer understanding of semiotics theory. Further Reading Semiotics: A Graphic Guide by Paul Cobley & Litza Jansz US: https://amzn.to/2SCGokF UK: https://amzn.to/2SB84GX Semiotics: The Basics by Daniel Chandler US: https://amzn.to/2EFeEbJ UK: https://amzn.to/2VpgP8C Mythologies by Roland Barthes US: https://amzn.to/2Eq3rud UK: https://amzn.to/2NBvXNu [The above are affiliate links. I receive a small kickback from anything you buy which, in turn, helps to support the channel.] If you've enjoyed this video then please do check out the rest of my channel where I put out a whole range of videos discussing theatre and playwriting from the perspective of an aspirant and (some might say) emerging playwright and theatre maker as well as reflecting on my experience as a PhD Student. Twitter: @Tom_Nicholas Website: www.tomnicholas.com Thanks for watching!
Views: 61762 Tom Nicholas
What is Cognitive Linguistics? | Definition of Cognitive Linguistics: Cognitive linguistics is an interdisciplinary branch of linguistics, combining knowledge and research from both psychology and linguistics. It describes how language interacts with cognition, how language forms our thoughts, and the evolution of language parallel with the change in the common mindset across time. According to Merriam-Webster, the word "cognitive" is defined as "of, relating to, being, or involving conscious intellectual activity (such as thinking, reasoning, or remembering)". Merriam-Webster also defines linguistics as "the study of human speech including the units, nature, structure, and modification of language". Combining those two definitions together to form cognitive linguistics would provide the notion of the concepts and ideas discussed in the realm of CL. Within CL, the analysis of the conceptual and experiential basis of linguistic categories is of primary importance. The formal structures of language are studied not as if they were autonomous, but as reflections of general conceptual organization, categorization principles, processing mechanisms, and experiential and environmental influences. Since cognitive linguistics sees language as embedded in the overall cognitive capacities of human beings, topics of special interest for cognitive linguistics include: the structural characteristics of natural language categorization (such as prototypicality, systematic polysemy, cognitive models, mental imagery, and conceptual metaphor); the functional principles of linguistic organization; the conceptual interface between syntax and semantics; the experiential and pragmatic background of language-in-use; and the relationship between language and thought, including questions about linguistic relativity and conceptual universals. What holds together the diverse forms of cognitive linguistics is the belief that linguistic knowledge involves not just knowledge of the language, but knowledge of the world as mediated by the language. In addition, cognitive linguistics argues that language is both embodied and situated in a specific environment.
Views: 3792 English Literature Hub
Take TESOL online courses to learn how to teach English as a foreign or second language: http://www.integrating-technology.org/course/index.php?categoryid=127 You may find the latest research studies on child language acquisition/learning by Patricia Kuhl of interest http://ilabs.uw.edu/institute-faculty/bio/i-labs-patricia-k-kuhl-phd
Views: 174124 Nellie Deutsch - Ed.D
What is Applied Linguistics? | Definition & History of Applied Linguistics? : Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of linguistics that identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems. Some of the academic fields related to applied linguistics are education, psychology, communication research, anthropology, and sociology. The tradition of applied linguistics established itself in part as a response to the narrowing of focus in linguistics with the advent in the late 1950s of generative linguistics, and has always maintained a socially-accountable role, demonstrated by its central interest in language problems. Although the field of applied linguistics started from Europe and the United States, the field rapidly flourished in the international context. Applied linguistics first concerned itself with principles and practices on the basis of linguistics. In the early days, applied linguistics was thought as “linguistics-applied” at least from the outside of the field. In the 1960s, however, applied linguistics was expanded to include language assessment, language policy, and second language acquisition. As early as the 1970s, applied linguistics became a problem-driven field rather than theoretical linguistics, including the solution of language-related problems in the real world. By the 1990s, applied linguistics had broadened including critical studies and multilingualism. Research in applied linguistics was shifted to "the theoretical and empirical investigation of real world problems in which language is a central issue." In the United States, applied linguistics also began narrowly as the application of insights from structural linguistics—first to the teaching of English in schools and subsequently to second and foreign language teaching. The linguistics applied approach to language teaching was promulgated most strenuously by Leonard Bloomfield, who developed the foundation for the Army Specialized Training Program, and by Charles C. Fries, who established the English Language Institute (ELI) at the University of Michigan in 1941. In 1948, the Research Club at Michigan established Language Learning: A Journal of Applied Linguistics, the first journal to bear the term applied linguistics. In the late 1960s, applied linguistics began to establish its own identity as an interdisciplinary field of linguistics concerned with real-world language issues. The new identity was solidified by the creation of the American Association for Applied Linguistics in 1977. ................................................................................................ Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Applied_linguistics Background Music: Evgeny Teilor, https://www.jamendo.com/track/1176656/oceans Image Sources: www.pixabay.com www.openclipart.com ................................................................................................... Tags: what is applied linguistics applied linguistics definition history of applied linguistics define applied linguistics
Views: 25487 English Literature Hub
Principles and Parameters in Natural Language by Prof.Rajesh Kumar,Department of Humanities and Social Sciences,IIT Madras.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.ac.in
Views: 3889 nptelhrd
Elisabeth Djukic (Mundolingua Museum) - Mundolingua, museum of language, languages and linguistics opened in 2013, after years of gestation, and aims to take the somewhat remote and academic field of linguistics to the general public in an enjoyable way. We look at some of the principles used in the conception of the museum : the difference between a museum and an interactive space, catering for the widest possible public, the leitmotiv of fun, that it be hands on, relatively easy to shift, with recycling and use of available resources. No particular view was to be favoured, nor any particular language. Numerous challenges resulted from these principles – which languages to use for all the information, how to display all with very limited space, and how to cater for the multiple target markets. To these we add the day to day existential challenges – mostly financial but also things like vandalism and theft, technical hiccups with hard and software and problems with the historic building we are in – leaks and dust and new legislation … Future perspectives for the museum are also part of our discussion and finally we have a look at the actual content of the museum, split into the 2 levels – language on the ground floor and languages in the basement. Join us at: PolyglotConference.com Facebook: http://fb.com/polyglotconference/ Facebook group: http://fb.com/groups/polyglotconference/ Twitter: http://twitter.com/polyglot_confer
Views: 706 Polyglot Conference
Mrs. Meenakshi Thakur, Biyani Girls college, Jaipur, explains about basic indispensable teaching skills for language specifically foreign language, English. She also includes basic techniques and methodologies for a trainer or a teacher. www.gurukpo.com, www.biyanicolleges.org
Views: 31147 Guru Kpo
In this video, Dr Greg Martin provides an introduction to research methods, methedology and study design. Specifically he takes a look at qualitative and quantitative research methods including case control studies, cohort studies, observational research etc. Global health (and public health) is truly multidisciplinary and leans on epidemiology, health economics, health policy, statistics, ethics, demography.... the list goes on and on. This YouTube channel is here to provide you with some teaching and information on these topics. I've also posted some videos on how to find work in the global health space and how to raise money or get a grant for your projects. Please feel free to leave comments and questions - I'll respond to all of them (we'll, I'll try to at least). Feel free to make suggestions as to future content for the channel. SUPPORT: —————- This channel has a crowd-funding campaign (please support if you find these videos useful). Here is the link: http://bit.ly/GH_support OTHER USEFUL LINKS: ———————— Channel page: http://bit.ly/GH_channel Subscribe: http://bit.ly/GH_subscribe Google+: http://bit.ly/GH_Google Twitter: @drgregmartin Facebook: http://bit.ly/GH_facebook HERE ARE SOME PLAYLISTS ——————————————- Finding work in Global Health: http://bit.ly/GH_working Epidemiology: http://bit.ly/GH_epi Global Health Ethics: http://bit.ly/GH_ethics Global Health Facts: http://bit.ly/GH_facts WANT CAREER ADVICE? ———————————— You can book time with Dr Greg Martin via Google Helpouts to get advice about finding work in the global health space. Here is the link: http://bit.ly/GH_career -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch: "Know how interpret an epidemic curve?" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7SM4PN7Yg1s -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 315934 Global Health with Greg Martin
What is PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITIONALITY? What does PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITIONALITY mean? PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITIONALITY meaning - PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITIONALITY definition - PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITIONALITY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. In mathematics, semantics, and philosophy of language, the principle of compositionality is the principle that the meaning of a complex expression is determined by the meanings of its constituent expressions and the rules used to combine them. This principle is also called Frege's principle, because Gottlob Frege is widely credited for the first modern formulation of it. However, the idea appears already among Indian philosophers of grammar such as Yaska, and also in Plato's work such as in Theaetetus. Besides, the principle was never explicitly stated by Frege, and it was arguably already assumed by Boole decades before Frege’s work. The principle of compositionality states that in a meaningful sentence, if the lexical parts are taken out of the sentence, what remains will be the rules of composition. Take, for example, the sentence "Socrates was a man". Once the meaningful lexical items are taken away—"Socrates" and "man"—what is left is the pseudo-sentence, "S was a M". The task becomes a matter of describing what the connection is between S and M. It is frequently taken to mean that every operation of the syntax should be associated with an operation of the semantics that acts on the meanings of the constituents combined by the syntactic operation. As a guideline for constructing semantic theories, this is generally taken, as in the influential work on the philosophy of language by Donald Davidson, to mean that every construct of the syntax should be associated by a clause of the T-schema with an operator in the semantics that specifies how the meaning of the whole expression is built from constituents combined by the syntactic rule. In some general mathematical theories (especially those in the tradition of Montague grammar), this guideline is taken to mean that the interpretation of a language is essentially given by a homomorphism between an algebra of syntactic representations and an algebra of semantic objects. The principle of compositionality also exists in a similar form in the compositionality of programming languages. The principle of compositionality has been the subject of intense debate. Indeed, there is no general agreement as to how the principle is to be interpreted, although there have been several attempts to provide formal definitions of it. (Szabó, 2012) Scholars are also divided as to whether the principle should be regarded as a factual claim, open to empirical testing; an analytic truth, obvious from the nature of language and meaning; or a methodological principle to guide the development of theories of syntax and semantics. The Principle of Compositionality has been attacked in all three spheres, although so far none of the criticisms brought against it have been generally regarded as compelling. Most proponents of the principle, however, make certain exceptions for idiomatic expressions in natural language. (Szabó, 2012) Further, in the context of the philosophy of language, the principle of compositionality does not explain all of meaning. For example, you cannot infer sarcasm purely on the basis of words and their composition, yet a phrase used sarcastically means something completely different from the same phrase uttered straightforwardly. Thus, some theorists think that the principle has to be revised to take into account linguistic and extralinguistic context, which includes the tone of voice used, common ground between the speakers, the intentions of the speaker, and so on. (Szabó, 2012)
Views: 1244 The Audiopedia
How do we know what questions we can ask? What keeps us from moving words around into whatever order we want? In this week's episode, we talk about syntactic islands: what they are, what rules can allow us to move some words across long distances in a sentence and not others, and what evidence we have from different languages to back these rules up. This is Topic #66! This week's tag language: Sinhala! Related videos: Trace Evidence: Syntactic Movement - https://youtu.be/x5iBbSkp8rk A Principled Approach: Principles and Parameters in Universal Grammar - https://youtu.be/GbK0ls7YVN4 Last episode: The Magic of Words: Performative Language - https://youtu.be/uCR3_7-lun4 Other of our morphology and syntax videos: Raising the Bar: What Changes in a Sentence When We Swap Verbs? - https://youtu.be/SYoYNeaSYrU Organizing Meanings: Morphological Typology - https://youtu.be/Ts2DS0ZsTyo Referential Treatment: Pronouns and Binding Theory - https://youtu.be/9sqm_cex4kA If you're taking part in our little April 1st quiz, try to tell us where Kanji has gone - the first person who tells us in the comments will get a free mug of their choice! Find us on all the social media worlds: Tumblr: http://thelingspace.tumblr.com/ Twitter: http://twitter.com/TheLingSpace Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/thelingspace/ And at our website, http://www.thelingspace.com/ ! You can also find our store at the website, https://thelingspace.storenvy.com/ Our website also has extra content about this week's topic at http://www.thelingspace.com/episode-66/ We also have forums to discuss this episode, and linguistics more generally. Sources: Most of the information in this episode comes from Andrew Radford's Minimalist Syntax -- Exploring the Structure of English (2004) & Andrew Carnie's Syntax -- A Generative Introduction (2007). We also refer to John R. Ross's dissertation from 1967, Constraints on Variables in Syntax, as well as Noam Chomsky's Conditions on Transformations (1973) and The Minimalist Program (1995). Looking forward to next week!
Views: 9415 The Ling Space
This video will equip learners of linguistics with some of the principles of Nativism. Language is an Innate property of humans... All human beings are born with a Language Acquisition Device (LAD). Universal Grammar. Nativism. all of these concepts will be discussed in detail in the video If you like it subscribe (y) Nativism nativism Chomsky nativism Noam Chomsky Nativism/ innateness/ first language acquisition..
Views: 1510 Applied Linguistics & English Language Teaching
How to prepare for CBSE NET in Linguistics WWW.GETJRF.COM PROVIDES YOU ALL WHAT IS NEEDED FOR THE PREPARATION OF UGC NET EXAM FROM MATERIALS, PAPERS, QUESTION PAPERS AND TUTORIALS Transcript Q. About myself. A. Well, I was born and brought up in Faizabad, U.P. in a family where education is of utmost importance. After completing my secondary education in science, I got admission in History (Honors) in Zakir Husain Delhi College, University of Delhi. While studying History, I realized that there are many interdisciplinary courses which might help us understand some ‘untouched’ but important concepts of ‘traditional’ subjects like History, Sociology, Philosophy, Economics and Polity etc. In fact, these interdisciplinary subjects emerged only because of certain needs of these traditional subjects. And this is how and why I landed up in Linguistics. Now, I am about to complete my M.A. in Linguistics from JNU and I am determined to prove the relevance of Linguistics in traditional subjects after I get into M.Phil/Ph.D. Q. 1st paper. A. According to my perception, it is the first paper of UGC which decides whether you are going to get only NET or JRF as well. In short, first paper draws a line between NET and JRF. As far reading materials are concerned, I did not take help of any specific books as this paper consist of questions of general knowledge, aptitude, general reasoning, elementary mathematics and current affairs and I believe newspapers are sufficient to answer most of GK questions. Other questions have their answer in themselves as questions from passages, statistics, reasoning and mathematics require no rocket science and a little practice for few weeks will do it. One can always skip some questions you don’t like as you need to answer only 50 questions out of 60 and I suggest everyone to use this ‘life line’ wisely. Q. 2nd paper A. 2nd paper consists of basic concepts and principles of respective disciplines. In Linguistics, questions are asked from core courses like Morphology, Phonology, introductory psycholinguistics, introductory sociolinguistics etc. In this paper there are certain questions about the development of the discipline, like on a timeline. Thus it is always helpful to read about eminent scholars of respective field i.e. about Linguists in my case and their important concepts. It will be good if one could remember some of the path breaking books in Linguistics and their significance. Victoria Fromkin’s An Introduction to Language is certainly helpful for both- paper 2 and paper3. Q. 3rd paper A. For 3rd paper one requires even deeper knowledge of discipline. Advanced level of courses like psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, syntax, computational linguistics, stylistics, typology, historical linguistics etc. constitute significant proportion of questions in this paper. Unfortunately, there is no specific book available which could cover all these section. Hence, one needs to look for different online as well as offline sources for different sub disciplines. George Yule’s A Study of Language will be helpful for this paper. Q. Internet. A. As I said, electronic media is very important especially in my discipline, one cannot avoid e-help. Apart from Wikipedia, there are other useful websites especially Stanford University’s site where one can look for help. Different online quizzes are also available. Q. Mock test. A. Though, I didn’t get any model paper anywhere, previous years’ question paper available on UGC’s site helped me a lot as one may grasp the idea of question formation as well as current trend of paper setting from these papers. Q. Strategy A. With a right strategy, I guess three weeks are more than enough to get JRF in linguistics but one should have utilized his/her class studies accordingly for this purpose. Selection of proper reading materials is also very important. Well organized and well planned study will be fruitful. Q. Hours A. I would say it doesn’t matter at all as there was no fixed time-table or schedule for me. I prefer ‘smart work’ over ‘hard work’. But this is my personal opinion and people are free to disagree. Q. Pattern A. I believe that a certain number of descriptive questions can improve the quality of this exam. I also believe that objective type of questions can check our factual knowledge only and it cannot look into our understanding of the concepts and our opinions as we have to select from four fixed options and one may have a totally different but equally correct fifth approach or opinion. For some discipline, I believe, Descriptive pattern is a necessity. Q. what I learnt A. If you don’t wanna be part of crowd then you need to be different. My success lies in this difference as I had a different and may be a better and convenient approach
Views: 2288 Get JRF
Chomskyan linguistics, beginning with his Syntactic Structures, a distillation of his Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory (1955, 75), challenges structural linguistics and introduces transformational grammar. This approach takes utterances (sequences of words) to have a syntax characterized by a formal grammar; in particular, a context-free grammar extended with transformational rules. Perhaps his most influential and time-tested contribution to the field is the claim that modeling knowledge of language using a formal grammar accounts for the "productivity" or "creativity" of language. In other words, a formal grammar of a language can explain the ability of a hearer-speaker to produce and interpret an infinite number of utterances, including novel ones, with a limited set of grammatical rules and a finite set of terms. He has always acknowledged his debt to Pāṇini for his modern notion of an explicit generative grammar, although it is also related to rationalist ideas of a priori knowledge. It is a popular misconception that Chomsky proved that language is entirely innate, and that he discovered a "universal grammar" (UG). In fact, Chomsky simply observed that while a human baby and a kitten are both capable of inductive reasoning, if they are exposed to exactly the same linguistic data, the human child will always acquire the ability to understand and produce language, while the kitten will never acquire either ability. Chomsky labeled whatever the relevant capacity the human has that the cat lacks the "language acquisition device" (LAD) and suggested that one of the tasks for linguistics should be to figure out what the LAD is and what constraints it puts on the range of possible human languages. The universal features that would result from these constraints are often termed "universal grammar" or UG. The Principles and Parameters approach (P&P) -- developed in his Pisa 1979 Lectures, later published as Lectures on Government and Binding (LGB) -- makes strong claims regarding universal grammar: that the grammatical principles underlying languages are innate and fixed, and the differences among the world's languages can be characterized in terms of parameter settings in the brain (such as the pro-drop parameter, which indicates whether an explicit subject is always required, as in English, or can be optionally dropped, as in Spanish), which are often likened to switches. (Hence the term principles and parameters, often given to this approach.) In this view, a child learning a language need only acquire the necessary lexical items (words, grammatical morphemes, and idioms), and determine the appropriate parameter settings, which can be done based on a few key examples. Proponents of this view argue that the pace at which children learn languages is inexplicably rapid, unless children have an innate ability to learn languages. The similar steps followed by children all across the world when learning languages, and the fact that children make certain characteristic errors as they learn their first language, whereas other seemingly logical kinds of errors never occur (and, according to Chomsky, should be attested if a purely general, rather than language-specific, learning mechanism were being employed), are also pointed to as indications of innateness. More recently, in his Minimalist Program (1995), while retaining the core concept of "principles and parameters," Chomsky attempts a major overhaul of the linguistic machinery involved in the LGB model, stripping from it all but the barest necessary elements, while advocating a general approach to the architecture of the human language faculty that emphasizes principles of economy and optimal design, reverting to a derivational approach to generation, in contrast with the largely representational approach of classic P&P. Chomsky's ideas have had a strong influence on researchers of language acquisition in children, though many researchers in this area such as Elizabeth Bates and Michael Tomasello argue very strongly against Chomsky's theories, and instead advocate emergentist or connectionist theories, explaining language with a number of general processing mechanisms in the brain that interact with the extensive and complex social environment in which language is used and learned. His best-known work in phonology is The Sound Pattern of English (1968), written with Morris Halle (and often known as simply SPE). This work has had a great significance for the development in the field. While phonological theory has since moved beyond "SPE phonology" in many important respects, the SPE system is considered the precursor of some of the most influential phonological theories today, including autosegmental phonology, lexical phonology and optimality theory. Chomsky no longer publishes on phonology. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noam_chomsky
Views: 4659 The Film Archives
Reduplication comes from Latin reduplicatio meaning doubling, folding. It is the act or result of doubling a sound, word, or word element, usually for grammatical or lexical purposes. It is one of the most natural processes of forming compound words.This unit discusses the main principles of reduplication in PDE as well as in other languages.
Views: 8242 The Virtual Linguistics Campus
What is a verbal bracket and what syntactic material can occur within it? Within less than two minutes Prof. Handke explains and exemplifies the organizational principles of this syntactic phenomenon using English and German. Recorded @GMW2015 during a video production demo.
Views: 921 The Virtual Linguistics Campus
In this video for the NUST MISiS Academic Writing Center, English Language Fellow John Kotnarowski provides a brief introduction to the concept of cohesion in academic writing. Defining cohesion as “the grammatical and lexical links within a text”, the video outlines the importance of cohesion in academic writing and offers examples of several useful cohesive devices.
Views: 60965 AWUC
This E-Lecture discusses the central principles and stages of the Great Vowel Shift, the chain shift that has influenced the English language until the present day. Using the potential of the ActivBoard, Jürgen Handke, discusses each individual stage of the GVS in detail, produces examples where necessary and includes phonological and more general explanations for this influential sound shift.
Views: 113025 The Virtual Linguistics Campus
This clip discusses the central principles of E-Education on the Virtual Linguistics Campus and the special realization of the Inverted Classroom Model. It explains the principles of E-Learning and E-Teaching including the possibilities for residential as well as remote online students.
Views: 2098 The Virtual Linguistics Campus
John R. Rickford (Stanford University), Language and Linguistics on Trial: Hearing Vernacular Speakers in Courtrooms and Beyond
Views: 2421 Linguistic Society of America
“The Philosophy of Style,” explored a growing trend of formalist approaches to writing. Highly focused on the proper placement and ordering of the parts of an English sentence, [Spencer] created a guide for effective composition. Spencer’s aim was to free prose writing from as much "friction and inertia" as possible, so that the reader would not be slowed by strenuous deliberations concerning the proper context and meaning of a sentence. Keeping in mind these general truths, we shall be in a condition to understand certain causes of effect in composition now to be considered. Every perception received, and every conception realized, entailing some amount of waste--or, as Liebig would say, some change of matter in the brain; and the efficiency of the faculties subject to this waste being thereby temporarily, though often but momentarily, diminished; the resulting partial inability must affect the acts of perception and conception that immediately succeed. Read By Gary Gilberd. About AUTHOR: Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era. Review By Диана : Jan16,2015 "http://www.goodreads.com/user/show/2703136" This book was such a pleasure. Herbert Spencer sets here to describe the rules that capture how best to use language - namely how to convey ideas in such a way so that they leave their impression while at the same time the mental energies and mental sensitivities of the reader/listener are economised. (Thus for example the principle of the ‘economy of mental energies’ is itself one of the principles of composition.) Some of the rules Spencer describes are fairly straightforward - eg the rule that one should put the word producing the greatest impression at the end of a list and not at its start. Other of the rules are more original - eg the one that shorter words are in most cases to be preferred to longer ones (this making in English Saxon words preferable to those of Latin origin). Except, Spencer says, when the word is supposed to produce a great impression, in which case a greater length might be an advantage, because it makes the mind spend a longer time on the idea. Those rules are not laid out at random; as seen above, Spencer keeps in mind the process of thought-formation while perceiving words, sentences, texts; (the rules can be said to be rules just because their use brings about the least frustration to the perceiving mind, while at the same time producing the greatest impression). This process of thought-formation I find quite interesting to meditate on. My favourite rule that Spencer mentions is the one that in a phrase the adjective should precede the noun, and not the other way around. That is, it is better to say ‘black horse’ (with the English), rather than ‘horse black’ (as the Spanish say: ‘caballo negro’). This is so, Spencer argues, because if we say ‘horse black’ the mind is first impelled to think about a horse before it hears the specification ‘black’. However, since one cannot imagine a colourless horse, the mind necessarily imagines a horse of a particular colour, say a brown one (since brown horses are most common). Thus the mind has already spent some effort in forming the idea of a horse of a particular colour when, at subsequently hearing the adjective ‘black’, the mind has to modify the idea that has already started to form. All this re-modification wastes mental energy, Spencer argues, and so it is better to put the more abstract, less specified in front - the adjective in front of the noun. Overall, I really liked the idea of the book. It is basically a search for the most efficient way to use a language system, and it makes me wonder if there is such a thing as an objectively most efficient language. Some of the rules Spencer describes might be controversial, but all are thought-provoking, as is the book itself. PS: I listened to the LibriVox audiobook - although the narration wasn’t the very best I’ve heard, it is definitely quite good, so I would recommend a listen. Our Website: http://www.mysticbooks.org Social-Link: www.fb.com/Mysticbooks.org www.twitter.com/mysticbooks1
Views: 1271 Mystic Books
In this E-Lecture, Prof. Handke outlines the basic methods and principles of historical semantics. He discusses the role of word etymologies, he defines the central mechanisms of semantic change and lists some examples of lexical change.
Views: 5095 The Virtual Linguistics Campus
Only very rarely do words occur in isolation. Rather, they are inserted into precisely defined syntactic contexts. This E-Lecture discusses the principles of lexical insertion from categorization to the definitin of the argument structure of lexemes.
Views: 6011 The Virtual Linguistics Campus
Psychological First Aid is a means of providing psychosocial support to individuals and families immediately after a disaster, terrorist or traumatic event, or other emergency. It consists of a set of helping actions which are systematically undertaken in order to reduce initial post-trauma distress and to support short- and long-term adaptive functioning. Based on the principle of "do no harm", it is provided increasingly by members of the general population, although mental health professionals are almost always involved as well. In this video, Richard Hill defines Psychological First Aid (or PFA), identifying its characteristics, and explaining why our modern world demands this level of assistance. This video consists of part 1 of a two-part series: we recommend you watch the companion video "Core Actions of Psychological First Aid" after watching this. About the lecturer: Richard Hill (MBMSc, BA (Linguistics), DipProfCouns, MA (Social Ecology), MEd, DPC) is a psychotherapist at the Davis Health Centre in Sydney (Australia) and director of the MindScience Institute (www.mindscienceinstitute.com). Richard is also a writer and regular speaker at mental health conferences in Australia and around the world.
Views: 7988 Australian Institute of Professional Counsellors